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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies on HIFU therapy in pancreatic cancer

From: A meta-analysis of palliative treatment of pancreatic cancer with high intensity focused ultrasound

Author, Date Type of Study Number of total patients Age (mean,*median) Tumor Characteristics (#pt) Image guidance Treatment HIFU Device Other associated treatments (#pt)
Stage Location Size
Xiong, 2001 [53] N/A 21 54 Stage III (12)
Stage IV (9)
Head (8)
Tail (13)
10x8x6 cm - 4x3x2 cm US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB-BY01 HIFU System Failed surgery (5)
Bile duct enterostomy (5)
Xu, 2003 [54] N/A 37 62 Stage III (28)
Stage IV (9)
Head (21)
Body/Tail (11)
Tail (5)
7x8x8 cm - 2x2x2 cm US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB-BY01 HIFU System Enterocholecystotomy (21)
Yuan, 2003 [55] N/A 40 64 N/A Head (29)
Body (8)
Tail (3)
Average 5.4 cm, range 3.0–7.8 cm US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB-BY01 HIFU System Obstructive jaundice surgically addressed prior to HIFU (20)
Gu, 2004 [21] Retrospective 45 (38 treated) 55.5 Stage II (5)
Stage III (30)
Stage IV (10)
Head (20)
Body (11)
Tail (6)
Head and Body (4)
Tail and Body (3)
Tumor volume average 30–360 mm3 US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB-BY01 HIFU System Exploratory surgery (24)
Bile duct enterostomy (22)
Li, 2004 [22] N/A 102 (10 pancreatic cancers) 61 N/A N/A N/A US HIFU+ Chemotherapy Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB-BY01 HIFU System Chemotherapy
Wu, 2005 [32] Prospective 8 62 Stage III (3)
Stage IV (5)
Body (2)
Head and Body (2)
Tail and Body (4)
Diameter of primary tumor mean 5.89x5.40 cm US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Exploratory surgery (2)
Chemotherapy (2)
Local radiation therapy (1)
IV Somatostatin (8)
Xie, 2008 [56] N/A 16 50 N/A N/A N/A US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, HIFUNIT-9000 HIFU System Chemotherapy (7)
Xiong, 2009 [44] Retrospective 89 65 Stage II (4)
Stage III (39)
Stage IV (46)
Head (34)
Tail and/or Body (55)
N/A US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB-BY01 HIFU System Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy before HIFU (39)
Chemotherapy concurrent with HIFU (5)
Biliary stent or surgery (26)
Zhao, 2010 [45] Retrospective 39 (37 assessed) 55 Stage IIa (3)
Stage IIb (5)
Stage III (31)
Body (12)
Head (27)
Longest diameter median 3.4 cm (range 1.7–8.5 cm) US HIFU+ Chemotherapy Continuous wave HIFU, HIFUNIT-9000 HIFU System Endoscopic biliary drainage with plastic stent (9)
Percutaneous biliary drainage (4)
Orsi, 2010 [57] Prospective 31 (6 pancreatic cancers) 64 N/A N/A N/A US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Chemotherapy and radiotherapy (6)
Wang, 2011 [33] Prospective 40 57* Stage III (13)
Stage IV (27)
Head (9)
Tail and/or Body (31)
Tumor size range 2–10 cm, median tumor size 4.3 cm US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Chemotherapy (28)
Chemotherapy + radiotherapy (7)
IV Somatostatin (40)
Biliary bypass procedure (2)
Endoscopic stenting (2)
Cholecystojejunostomy (2)
Sung, 2011 [35] Prospective 46 61 Stage III (18)
Stage IV (28)
Head (17)
Tail and/or Body (25)
Tail (4)
Mean 4.2 +/- 1.4 cm, range 1.6–9.3 cm US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Pre HIFU
Chemotherapy (20) (1 pt Surgical Resection)
Chemoradiation therapy (10)
Radiation therapy (3)
After HIFU
Chemotherapy (29)
Chemoradiation (1)
Duodenal stent (1)
Orgera, 2011 [58] Prospective 22 (3 pancreatic cancers) 61 N/A N/A N/A US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Chemotherapy + radiotherapy (6)
Alcohol ablation before HIFU (1)
Li, 2012 [59] Retrospective 25 60 Stage III (12)
Stage IV (23)
Head (7)
Tail and/or Body (18)
N/A US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB- BY02 HIFU System None
Gao, 2013 [60] Prospective 39 58* N/A Head (7)
Tail and/or Body (32)
N/A US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy before HIFU (10)
Chemotherapy concurrent with HIFU (25)
Anzidei, 2014 [24] Prospective 7 (6 treated) 67 Stage III (7) Body (7) Tumor volume mean 20 +/- 5.6 mL MRI HIFU ExAblate 2100; InSightec Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy before HIFU (7)
Previous failed celiac plexus alcoholization (7)
Continued chemotherapy after HIFU (7)
Sofuni, 2014 [61] Prospective 30 64 Stage III (16)
Stage IV (14)
Head (13)
Unicinate (4)
Body (9)
Tail (1)
Other (3)
Tumor size mean 31.7 +/- 1.7 mm US HIFU Pulsed wave HIFU, FEB- BY01 HIFU System Pre HIFU
Operation (3)
Chemotherapy (28)
Radiation therapy (4)
Interventional radiology (5)
After HIFU
Chemotherapy (24)
Operation (2)
Intervention radiology (5)
Marinova, 2016a [23] Prospective 13 66.2 Stage III (5)
Stage IV (8)
Body (12)
Tail and/or Body (4)
Head and Body (5)
Tumor volume range 12.6–61.8 mL, mean 34.3 +/- 17.9 mL US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Chemotherapy previous and concurrent with HIFU (10)
Radiotherapy and surgery (1)
Non therapeutic laparotomy (5)
Plastic or metal stents for cholestasis (2)
Percutaneous biliary drainage (1)
Li YJ, 2016 [34] Prospective 16 62.3 N/A Head (9)
Body (7)
Mean max diameter 3.7 cm US HIFU+ Radiotherapy N/A N/A
Li X, 2016 [49] Retrospective 120 (61 treated with HIFU) 50.13 N/A Head (31)
Other (30)
N/A US HIFU+ Chemotherapy Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System N/A
Strunk, 2016 [62] Prospective 15 66.9 Stage III (6)
Stage IV (9)
Head/Body (3)
Body (5)
Head (7)
N/A US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Pre HIFU
Chemotherapy (13)
Non therapeutic laparotomies (5)
Surgery radiotherapy (1)
Radiotherapy (2)
Concurrent chemotherapy (13)
Biliary drainage (4)
Lv, 2016 [48] Prospective Randomized 45 (23 treated with HIFU) 59 Stage III (29)
Stage IV (16)
Head (22)
Tail and Body (23)
Tumor size range 8.1x7.5x5.8–2.6x2.5x1.8 cm US HIFU+ Chemotherapy Continuous wave HIFU, JC200 HIFU System N/A
Marinova, 2016b [36] Prospective 20 68 Stage III (6)
Stage IV (12)
N/A Tumor volume 35.2 +/- 18.6 mL US HIFU Continuous wave HIFU, Model-JC HIFU System Concurrent chemotherapy (16)
Chemotherapy after HIFU (2)
Metal or plastic bile duct stent (6)
  1. * median age