Skip to main content

Table 5 Summary of closed-loop targeting and feedback-controlled therapy

From: Deep bleeder acoustic coagulation (DBAC)—Part I: development and in vitro testing of a research prototype cuff system

Phantom (by size) Bleeder location Number of tiles Targeting convergence success rate Dose time (s) ΔT (eod): set point dosing threshold (temperature) (°C) ΔT (eod): average RNN estimated temperature rise) (°C) ΔT (eod): (TC measured temperature rise) (°C)
7.5 cm Lower 3 2/3 11.2 5 5 1.5a
Middle 2 2 2/2 8.3 5 5.8 n/ab
Middle 3 2 0/2 8 5 5.1 2.2
15 cm Middle 4 3/4 25.2 15 15.2 13.5c
Upper 3 3/3 11.3 5 5.1 12/4d
Lower 3 2/3 15.1 5 4.5 3
Lower 2 2 2/2 13.2 5 6.8 6
25 cm Middle 3 1/3 15 5 6 4.5
Middle 2 3 2/3 12.6 5 5.7 2
Middle 3 2 1/2 9.3 5 6 4
Lower 2 2/2 18.75 5 5.5 30/10e
  1. aInsufficient ΔT; thermal peaking cross-check revealed foci off the TC by X = 3 mm, Y = 5 mm, and Z = 6 mm
  2. bAbnormal ΔT measured (decreasing); wiring check found no error. High-power dose shot used; damaged PVA vessel; dissection was needed to confirm the location of TC and condition of the vessel branch
  3. cThe first experiment; ∆T threshold = 15 °C and resulted in phantom vessel damage; subsequent ∆ thresholds set to 5 °C
  4. dTC measured oscillatory temperature curves. Speculate multiple beams struck TC producing varying viscous heating artifact
  5. eTC showed a smooth ΔT rise to 30 °C on one TC and an oscillatory ΔT response on the other TC