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Table 5 The results, mean (standard deviation), of the connected-component analysis on the temperature increase distributions for the four focusing approaches for the different target categories

From: Full-wave acoustic and thermal modeling of transcranial ultrasound propagation and investigation of skull-induced aberration correction techniques: a feasibility study

Quantity Approach ST above FP ST below FP CT All targets
D[mm] DPC 0.9 (0.3) 2.3 (2.3) 11.0 (10.6) 5.2 (7.9)
  RTPC 0.6 (0.2) 3.0 (2.7) 8.7 (9.5) 4.7 (6.8)
  SPC 0.3 (0.1) 0.8 (1.1) 0.5 (0.2) 0.6 (0.8)
  SPAC 0.3 (0.1) 0.5 (0.1) 0.5 (0.1) 0.5 (0.1)
T[°C] DPC 17.9 (6.1) 6.2 (3.9) 1.7 (0.7) 6.7 (6.8)
  RTPC 23.2 (4.1) 6.5 (4.2) 1.7 (0.5) 7.8 (8.3)
  SPC 42.2 (3.5) 19.7 (6.5) 11.0 (2.0) 20.6 (11.9)
  SPAC 51.9 (4.2) 27.4 (8.6) 21.3 (4.3) 29.6 (12.7)
V[mm 3] DPC 134.0 (47.4) 434.0 (594.9) 450.4 (544.2) 385.4 (532.1)
  RTPC 71.0 (4.7) 305.6 (386.2) 214.5 (176.6) 229.8 (294.0)
  SPC 51.5 (3.6) 62.6 (43.8) 38.5 (3.9) 51.8 (31.6)
  SPAC 51.3 (4.8) 52.0 (11.0) 66.9 (35.7) 57.3 (24.0)
  1. D is the distance between the intended target and the nearest lesion, T is the peak temperature increase in that lesion, and V is the volume of that lesion. ST structure targets, CT cortex targets, FP focal plane