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Table 3 Parameter comparison for the clinical prototype for displacing renal calculi, shockwave lithotripsy, and diagnostic ultrasound

From: Focused ultrasound to displace renal calculi: threshold for tissue injury

Device Fc(MHz) Pulse duration(μs) Duty cycle P+(MPa) P-(MPa) ISPPA.3(W/cm2)
Clinical lithotripter 0.5 5 0.001 for 60 min 37–115 -10 20,000
Diagnostic US 2 1 0.01–1 continuous 4 3 190
Clinical simulation 2 100 3.3% in 1 s bursts 20 -10 2,400
Injury threshold 2 100 3.3% for 10 min 96 -16 16,620