Measurement of ultrasonic phase and group velocities in human dental hard tissue
© Ghorayeb et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 7 November 2012
Accepted: 18 February 2013
Published: 1 May 2013
The development of ultrasound for use in dental tissues is hampered by the complex, multilayered nature of the teeth. The purpose of this preliminary study was to obtain the phase and group velocities associated with several directions of ultrasonic wave propagation in relation to the tooth structure, which would then lead to the determination of the elastic constants in dental hard tissue. Knowledge of these elastic constants can be used to feed back into numerical models (such as finite element) in order to simulate/predict ultrasonic wave propagation and behavior in the teeth. This will help to optimize ultrasonic protocols as potential noninvasive therapeutic tools for novel dental regenerative therapies.
An extracted human second molar was used to determine time-of-flight information from A-scan signatures obtained at various angles of inclination and rotation using a scanning acoustic microscope at 10 MHz. Phase and group velocities and associated slowness curves were calculated in order to determine the independent elastic constants in the human teeth.
Results show that as the tooth was inclined at three azimuthal angles (Θin = 0°, 15°, and 30°) and rotated from Φin = 0° to 360° in order to cover the whole perimeter of the tooth, slowness curves constructed from the computed phase and group velocities versus angle of rotation confirm the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of the tooth as indicated by the nonuniform appearance of uneven circular shape patterns of the measurements when compared to those produced in a control isotropic fused quartz sample.
This study demonstrates that phase and group velocities of ultrasound as determined by acoustic microscopy change and are dependent on the direction of the tooth structure. Thus, these results confirm that the tooth is indeed a multilayered anisotropic structure underscoring that there is no single elastic constant sufficient to represent the complex structure of the tooth. The findings underline the importance to take into account these crucial characteristics in order to develop and optimize therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications of ultrasound in dental tissue repair, and further studies are warranted to analyze ultrasound transmission at various frequencies and intensities in different teeth to develop appropriate models for ultrasound biophysical behavior in dental tissues.
KeywordsDental ultrasound Therapeutic ultrasound Tooth repair Phase velocities Slowness curves
Ultrasonic waves such as those used routinely during medical examinations and prognoses propagate in a very complex manner. This level of complexity holds true even when these sound waves propagate in ideal, homogeneous, and uniform media. Despite the fact that diagnostic ultrasound techniques are based on well-established phenomena, there remains the area of dentistry where ultrasound has not played yet a very important role. This is due to the fact that ultrasonic propagation in inhomogeneous/anisotropic media results in further degradations in acoustic field. Scattering effects at the microscale level as well as at the multilayer interfaces are responsible for these degradations.
In earlier diagnostic ultrasound experiments performed on the human teeth, an ultrasonic pulse-echo system was able to detect the enamel-dentin junction and the dentin-pulp interface . Ultrasonic imaging techniques have also been applied to other areas of dentistry, specifically prosthodontics. A B-mode ultrasonic system for determining the thickness of the masticatory mucosa for denture construction has also been developed , and the use of the scanning acoustic microscope to image the elastic properties of carious human dental enamel has been described . Acoustic microscopy has been successful for imaging lesions in tooth enamel and detecting the enamel-dentin interface . Finite element models [5, 6] as well as PSpice (OrCAD™, Cadence Design Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA) transmission line (T-line) models  used to understand ultrasonic wave propagation in the teeth have been established. In order to confirm predictions made by these latter finite element and T-line models, experimental data was gathered  for the purpose of assessing the viability of ultrasound to detect cavities and fractures in the extracted human teeth. The method showed great promise as a potential improvement upon current dental imaging systems.
For years, the main applications of therapeutic ultrasound in dentistry have been mostly limited to oral surface cleaning (i.e., removal of plaque and calculus) or root canal treatment . In recent years, however, therapeutic ultrasound studies performed on dental tissue have taken a different path [10, 11]. The goal of this research is to develop novel ultrasound therapies that can be easily applied to the teeth to promote tissue healing, more specifically tooth regeneration. Preliminary results showed that this idea of repairing the teeth with ultrasound has potential. The tooth is a hard mineralized structure with a living soft tissue core capable to respond to outside stimuli including physical forces. Research has demonstrated that ultrasound in the low frequency range, generally used in dentistry for dental scaling, stimulated gene expression and the production of tissue regulatory growth factors that are considered to be crucial for odontoblast differentiation, activity, and dentin repair [12, 13]. More recently, it was demonstrated that low-frequency ultrasound stimulated differentiation and in vitro mineralization in odontoblast-like cultures . These findings are novel and exciting and support the working hypothesis that ultrasound may be an effective noninvasive tool for novel dental regenerative therapies . Interestingly, these findings were recently corroborated in in vitro tooth slice organ cultures where low-intensity pulsed ultrasound was shown to increase pre-dentin thickness and sub-odontoblast cell numbers [10, 15].
However, to develop ultrasound as a therapeutic application, a thorough understanding is required regarding ultrasonic wave propagation and intensity distribution in teeth structures. The tooth is a highly anisotropic medium. This quality stems from two different criteria—layer consistency and structural component. The enamel portion of a tooth mainly consists of calcium hydroxyapatite ; the dentin represents a collagenous mineralized substance much like the bone and contains tubular canals, and the tooth's central cavity (pulp) contains a loose connective tissue with various cell types, blood vessels, and nerves. Odontoblasts surround the dental pulp with cellular processes extending into the dentinal tubules which may also contain neurite endings. In addition, the root is enclosed by a thin layer of bone-like material called cementum, which is surrounded by a periodontal ligament. The latter tissue is highly cellular and contains bundles of thick collagenous fibers responsible for attaching the tooth to the alveolar jaw bone. So, as it may be appreciated, the tooth is composed of a very complex mesh of intricate layers, each having different chemical and structural characteristics than the one adjacent to it. As a result of all these effects, ultrasonic waves propagating within a tooth would undergo a fair amount of mode conversion. This, in a way, is similar to the assessment of the structural integrity of anisotropic components used in aircrafts and submarines whereby elastic constants of the host material need to be determined.
In this paper, we propose and test a proof-of-concept methodology based on previous studies [17–21] that would eventually lead to the determination of the elastic constants in dental hard tissue. The study used an extracted human tooth to determine phase and group velocities from measured time-of-flight (TOF) of an ultrasonic wave as it propagates along arbitrary directions through the tooth crown of the specimen using a pulse-echo setup at different inclination angles of incidence.
All studies were approved by and in compliance with the guidelines set by the institutional review board committee at Hofstra University (Hempstead, NY, USA).
All surfaces are perpendicular to the symmetry direction in such a way that the length in each direction is at least five longitudinal wavelengths for proper measurement, and all surfaces are flat.
Largest surface perpendicular to the <0 1 1> direction and upper and lower surfaces are flat.
Largest surface perpendicular to the <1 0 1> direction and upper and lower surfaces are flat.
Largest surface perpendicular to the <1 1 0> direction and upper and lower surfaces are flat.
However, as mentioned earlier, this study is only a proof-of-concept and was performed on only one tooth sample. Future studies will consider the aforementioned implementation to measure the elastic constants from obtained phase velocities.
From Equations 9 and 10, the magnitude and directions of phase velocities for all modes of propagation inside the tooth can be determined for any arbitrary angle of incidence, Θin. Once this is done, an inversion routine based on the Newton-Rhapson method  can be implemented on the above characteristic polynomial to determine the elastic constants. Knowledge of these elastic constants can be used to feed back into models (such as finite element) in order to simulate/predict ultrasonic wave propagation and behavior in the teeth.
Results and discussion
The observations highlight polar/slowness curves (Figures 6 and 7) which confirm the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of the tooth. This is indicated by the nonuniform appearance of uneven circular shape patterns of both TOF and V p measurements when compared with the perfect circular measurements made in the control isotropic fused quartz sample shown in Figure 5. This outcome has obvious implications for the development of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool, and in this respect, further analyses need to be conducted to determine the phase velocity of ultrasound at different frequencies.
As mentioned earlier, since the flattening process of the tooth caused the majority of the enamel layer to be lost, exposing only the dentin portion, the average group velocities attained were approximately 3,178, 3,088, and 3,080 m/s for each of the three azimuthal angles (Θin = 0°, 15°, and 30°), respectively. These values confirm what was reported in earlier studies [1, 5–8].
Moreover, regarding the potential use of ultrasound for dental tissue repair, it is important to relate the physical behavior of ultrasound through the different layers of the teeth to those in a viable pulp cavity and relate these characteristics to localized ultrasound intensity in order to assess the biological effects of ultrasound in the pulp region. In other words, knowledge of the elastic constants can be used to feed back into numerical models (such as finite element) in order to simulate/predict ultrasonic wave propagation and behavior in the teeth. This will help optimize ultrasonic protocols as potential noninvasive tools for novel dental regenerative therapies.
This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that phase velocities (and corresponding group velocities) of ultrasound as determined by acoustic microscopy change and are dependent on the direction of the tooth structure. The data underscore the anisotropic structure and demonstrate that no single elastic constant will be sufficient to represent the complex nature of the tooth. The findings have obvious implications for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasonic devices for dental tissues, and further correlation studies that will examine other samples are warranted to analyze ultrasound transmission at various frequencies and intensities in different teeth to develop appropriate models for ultrasound biophysical behavior in dental tissues.
This research was performed within the framework of the Capstone Senior Design component in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Ultrasound Research Laboratory, at Hofstra University.
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