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Table 1 Approaches to FUS control systems with motion compensation

From: A focused ultrasound treatment system for moving targets (part I): generic system design and in-silico first-stage evaluation

Reference (year) Group/principal investigators Tracking source Prediction FUS control Validation
Pernot et al. [20] (2004) Fink, Tanter 3D US-based tracking (using elements of the therapeutic probe), 10-50 Hz No Steered (10-50 Hz) Ex-vivo
Marquet et al. [19] (2011) Fink, Tanter 3D US-based tracking (using elements of the therapeutic probe), 10 Hz No Steered, spiral (10 Hz) Ex-vivo, in-vivo pig
de Senneville et al. [21] (2007) Moonen MR image-based registration (correlation with motion atlas) 2 s delay compensation using pre-treatment analysis of periodic motions (average period Fourier decomposition) Steered Ex-vivo (phantom moved by motor)
Ries et al. [22] (2010) Moonen 2D MR with prospective slice tracking using pencil-beam navigator; 2D optical flow on GPU 3D Kalman-predictor for trajectory anticipation (<114 ms latency compensation) Steered (>10 Hz) Ex-vivo, in-vivo pigs
de Senneville et al. [23] (2011) Moonen MR (10 Hz), optical flow Learning motion pattern during preparation Steered Hyperthermia, ex-vivo, in-vivo pigs
Quesson et al. [24] (2011) Moonen 5-slice MR (2.5 Hz) Not reported Not reported In-vivo pig
Holbrook et al. [25] (2014) Pauly Respiratory bellow Look-up table generated in preparation step 32 target presets Ex-vivo, in-vivo pig
Auboiroux et al. [26] (2012) Salomir MR compatible US imaging (≥ 20 Hz), optical flow tracking, 2D No Steered (8 Hz), single- and multi-focus Ex-vivo (ventilator-driven balloon)
Celicanin et al. [27] (2014) Salomir MR, 1D pencil-beam navigator (80 ms update) No Steered (max 20 Hz) Ex-vivo, in-vivo sheep
  1. The work of Marquet et al. [19] is the only one addressing both motion compensation and transcostal sonication (using binarized apodization)