Skip to main content

Table 2 A comparison of treatment, complications and efficacy between different HIFU studies

From: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of benign thyroid nodules – a systematic review

First author (year) No. of nodules Nodule volume (mL) Type of device and probe Total amount of DIAE to each nodule (KJ) Treatment time (minutes) Complications Efficacy (% reduction from baseline)
Esnault (2011) [15] 22 0.5–2.6 US-guided HIFU/3 MHz extracorporeal probe 35–94 J/pulsea   Pain, skin burn, cough, blisters Feasibility study. Ablated nodules were examined on histology after 2 weeks
Korkusuz (2014) [19] 10 Median: 3.19 (range: 0.8–7.67) US-guided HIFU/3 MHz extracorporeal probe Median: 8.4 (range: 5.65–12.46) Not reported Pain Not reported
Korkusuz (2015) [21] 9 Median: 3.5 (range: 0.8–7.7) US-guided HIFU/3 MHz extracorporeal probe Median: 9.9 (range: 5.7–12.5) Median: 62 (range: 42–96) Pain during treatment, reddening of skin Median: 48.8 (range: 11.4–75.0) at 3-month
Korkusuz (2015) [22] 12 Median: 3.4 (range: 0.6–5.0) US-guided HIFU/3 MHz extracorporeal probe - - None reported Median: 55 at 3-month
Kovatcheva (2015) [23, 22] 20 Mean: 4.96 ± 2.79 (range: 1.56–9.35) US-guided HIFU/3 MHz extracorporeal probe Mean: 16.4 ± 7.7 (range: 5.5–31.7) Mean: 86.8 ± 31.7 (range: 37–152) Subcutaneous edema, skin redness Mean: 48.7 ± 24.3 at 6-month (after single ablation)
Lang (2017) [24] 22 Mean: 6.98 ± 4.04 (range: 1.68–16.76) US-guided HIFU/3 MHz extracorporeal probe Mean: 15.17 ± 6.90 (range 5.88–28.35) Mean: 75.71 ± 34.20 (range: 48.75 153.25) Pain, skin redness, minor neck swelling Mean: 68.87 ± 15.27 at 12-month (following single ablation)
  1. Abbreviations: US- guided HIFU ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound, DIAE depth-independent acoustic energy
  2. aonly power was provided. Total energy was not available