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Table 1 Material properties of tissues. ƒ represents frequency, in units of MHz

From: Theoretical investigation of transgastric and intraductal approaches for ultrasound-based thermal therapy of the pancreas

Medium Density (kg/m3) Attenuation (Np/m) Thermal conductivity (W/m/K) Specific heat (J/kg/K) Perfusion rate (kg/m3/s)
Tumor 1050a 10 ƒ [52, 65] .51a 3200a 4.5 [51, 6668]
Pancreas 1050 [52] 11.9 ƒ0.78 [52] .51 [52] 3200 [69] 10 [52]
Duodenal wall 1050 [52] 5 ƒ .53 [52, 69] 3700 [6971] 16.7 [52, 69]
Stomach wall 1060 [52, 69] 5 ƒ .54 [52, 69] 3700 [69] 6.8 [52, 69]
Water, pancreatic juices, and gastric contents 1010 [52, 72] 0.025 ƒ2 [52] .58 4000 0
Blood N/A 1.6 ƒ1.21 [52] N/A 3600 [52] N/A
Liver 1050 [52] 4.5 ƒ [16] .51 [52] 3600 [16] 15 [16]
Kidney 1050 [52] 6 ƒ [52] .54 [52] 3700 [52] 68.9 [52]
Spleen 1050 [52] 13.2 ƒ [52] .54 [52] 3700 [52] 22.1 [52]
Bone 1420 [52] 105 ƒ [52] .38 [52] 1700 [73] 0.89 [74]
Renal calcifications 1990 [52]b 105 ƒ [52]b .5 [52]c 1300 [52]b 0
Bowel 1040 [52] 5.6 ƒ [52] 0.56 [52] 3600 [69] 16.4 [52]
Other soft tissue 1050 [52] 6.4 ƒ [52] .49 [52] 3400 [52] 3 [52]
  1. Properties of normal pancreatic tissue were used for some pancreatic tumor properties (a). The acoustic attenuation of various neoplasms was used to estimate the attenuation in pancreatic tumors. Because the specific heat of water is very different from those of tissue and biological fluids, an intermediate value was used for the specific heat of water, pancreatic juices, and gastric contents. Attenuation of the stomach and duodenal walls were estimated from measurements performed in porcine stomach tissue. Properties for whole or cortical bone (b) were used for some calcification properties, and properties for calcified arterial plaques were used for another (c)