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Table 1 Some mechanic, acoustic, and thermal properties of Sawbones® phantoms and cortical bone

From: Assessing heating distribution by therapeutic ultrasound on bone phantoms and in vitro human samples using infrared thermography

Physical property Sawbones® Cortical bone
Density (kg/m3) 1700a 1810b
Tensile strength (ultimate) (MPa) 90a 124b
Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 12.4a 17.6b
Acoustic longitudinal velocity (m/s) 3300c 4200c
Acoustic transverse velocity (m/s) 1600c 2000c
Acoustic attenuation (dB/cm MHz) 5.7–6.2d 1–10e
Specific heat (J/kg °C) 1.25d 1.25f
Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 0.47d 0.31f
  1. aInformation provided by the manufacturer
  2. bRef [36]
  3. cRef [22]
  4. dMeasured by our laboratory
  5. eRef [37]
  6. fRef [29, 30]