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Table 1 Summary of the in vitro test bed objectives and results

From: Deep bleeder acoustic coagulation (DBAC)—Part I: development and in vitro testing of a research prototype cuff system

Program milestone Phantom type
Objective Integrated Phantom (D&L/targeting) Result HIFU phantom (power delivery) Result
Minimum structure resolution (MSR) PVA vessel 0.6 mm diameter Met goal (2/2) NA NA
Minimum detectable velocity (MDV) PVA vessel 3 cm/s mean velocity Did not meet goal (0/3) NA NA
Min and max thermal dose (MTD) NA NA Non-feedback test 6 thermocouples (ΔT: 33 °C ≤ TD ≤ 58 °C) Met goal
Min and max depth of penetration (MDP) Min: 5 cm Met goal (1/2) Met goal (3/3) Min: 5 cm Met goal
Max: 12.5 cm (25-cm diameter phantom)   Max: 12.5 cm (25-cm diameter phantom) Met goal
Maximum thermal skin dose (MTSD) NA NA Surface thermocouples (MTSD: ΔT max ≤ 20 °C) Met goal
D&L on minimum radius of curvature (MRC) phantom 3.75-cm depth bleeder in a 3.75-cm radius phantom Did not meet goal (0/5) 3.75-cm depth in a 3.75-cm radius phantom Met goal
D&L algorithm Madsen w/PVA vessels Met goal NA NA
D&L to targeting communication Two thermocouples on vessel wall to verify targeting Met goal NA NA
Targeting to therapy power communication and coordinated functioning Closed-loop targeting and dosing w/o human interaction Met goal NA NA
Closed-loop targeting “Line and dot” measured Met goal NA NA
Closed-loop dosing RNN thermometry Met goal NA NA