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Table 3 Overview of results with regard to MR signal intensity, histology, norepinephrine concentrations, and blood pressure

From: MR-guided high-focused ultrasound for renal sympathetic denervation—a feasibility study in pigs

  Signal increase in T2-w after intervention Histological changes Norepinephrine levelsa Blood pressure (systolic/diastolic)
No changes Periosseous/transverse process Perivascular tissue   Right Left Change in% Before After 4-week follow-up
Pig 1   X    285.6 396.2 -27.9 145/46 171/100 X
Pig 2   X    496.3 577.1 -14 119/52 162/83 X
Pig 3   X    478.7 433.1 10 132/74 122/48 93/46
Pig 4   X X X 445.4 509 -12.5 139/84 153/88 135/83
Pig 5   X    317.7 346.1 -8.2 130/42 118/55 118/49
Pig 6   X X   309.1 359.7 -14 145/39 166/33 130/48
Pig 7   X X   267.9 429.5 -38 117/39 144/60 111/34
Pig 8   X    348.9 270.5 29 112/62 152/74 122/52
Pig 9   X    575.8 658.5 -12.6 75/24 123/50 158/66
Pig 10 X     494.4 295.8 67.1 102/54 85/29 123/45
Mean 391.7 442.2   124/51 146/66 124/54
Pigs 1–9 (±109.5) (±121.1)
Mean 402 427.6   122/52 140/62 124/53
Pigs 1–10 (±108.3) (±123.2)
  1. aLLOQ 20 ng/g tissue. Pig nos. 1 and 2 were sacrificed 2 h after the intervention to assess immediate effects on vessels and perivascular tissues. The other eight pigs were euthanized after 4 weeks. T2 signal intensity increase, histological changes, NE levels of the treated right (italicized) and untreated left kidneys (ng/g) at 4 weeks, and blood pressure values (systolic/diastolic in mmHg) before and after the intervention is given. All treated pigs developed edema in the tissue adjacent to the transverse process. Edema in the periarterial tissue was found in three pigs and corresponding histological changes in one pig. NE was lower on the treated side in seven pigs (italicized). Two pigs and the sham-treated pig had higher NE levels on the treated side. Average systolic and diastolic blood pressure 4 weeks after the intervention did not differ significantly from baseline.