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Table 2 Summary of results for skin blood flow and skin temperature over the treatment area

From: Short-term sensory and cutaneous vascular responses to therapeutic ultrasound in the forearms of healthy volunteers

  Pulsed US group Continuous US group
Pulsed US (3 MHz)a Control-p Control-c Continuous US (1 MHz)b
  Before After CS ES Before After CS ES Before After CS ES Before After CS ES
Bf M 60 M 57.6 2.8* 0.12 M 60.3 M 60 1.1* −0.07 M 60.6 M 59.9 0.8* 0.03 M 60.6 M 56.9 3.5* 0.2
SD 10.6 SD 11.2 SD 10.7 SD 8.8 SD 8.9 SD 9.9 SD 8.9 SD 10.6
CI (55–65) CI (52–62) CI (55–64) CI (57–66) CI (56–64) CI (54–64) CI (56–64) CI (51–61)
St M 33.1 M 30.9 2.1* 0.68 M 33.1 M 33 0.1* −0.04 M 33.4 M 33.1 0.3* 0.2 M 33.1 M 32.1 1.0* 0.42
SD 1.1 SD 1.1 SD 1.2 SD 0.8 SD 1.0 SD 0.9 SD 1 SD 1.2
  CI (33–34) CI (30–32)    CI (33–34) CI (33–33)    CI (33–34) CI (33–34)    CI (32–34) CI (31–33)   
  1. aPulsed mode, 3 MHz, 2.5 W/cm2, 5 min.; bcontinuous mode, 1 MHz, 0.8 W/cm2, 3 min. Control-p no US therapy in pulsed US group, Control-c no US therapy in continuous US group, Tx treatment, M mean, CI 95% confidence interval, SD standard deviation, CS change scores, ES effect size r (pre-post/pooled SD), Bf skin blood flow, St skin temperature. *Significance level at p < 0.05.